Overview, Introduction for Geomodelling and Geostatistics:
- Introduction to geomodeling (geological, geophysical, petrophysical and RE data integration)
- Review on descriptive and inferential statistics, data analysis and data transformation.
- Geostatistics, stationarity and concept of spatial heterogeneity; variogram calculation, setting and modeling; anisotropy, directional analysis and cross variogram.
- Unsample locations and estimation methods (simple – ordinary – universal kriging, co-kriging, collocated co-Kriging) and simulation method (TGS, SIS, Object-based, SGS, etc.).
Overview of Structural Modelling and Geological Conceptual Model:
- Fault network (complex structure, reverse fault, numerous fault; fault truncation, etc.).
- Interpreted vs. calculated horizons; horizon modeling and data filtering.
- Horizon truncation and onlapping.
- Zonation and layering (isochore correction).
- 3D grid concept (pillar, non pillar, zone, subgrid, staircase, etc.).
- Review of carbonate conceptual geology, depositional environments and reservoir quality.
- Facies interpretation (core interpretation, log – core calibration, facies interpretation in un-cored wells, etc.)
Workshop: Structural Modeling, Data Loading, QC and Fault Modeling:
- Structural data loading (horizons and fault sticks/picks).
- Structural data QC, cleaning and filtering.
- Building integrated structural modeling (fault model and horizon model).
- Built zonation based on sequence stratigraphic picks.
- 3D grid construction and optimization (grid size and orientation) to yield stable structural model.
- 3D grid cell thickness optimization and preserving statistical characteristics and geological feature; layering setting in carbonate with and without diagenetic overprint.
Workshop: Sequence Stratigraphic Correlation:
- Identify parasequence surfaces and system tracts.
- Argillaceous content-based correlation in carbonate reservoir and sequence stratigraphic correlation.
- Identification of diagenetic overprint in log/cell resolution and its impact in 3D model
- Combining argillaceous and diagenetic process in log correlation, preserving geological heterogeneity
Workshop: Variogram (Setting/Modeling), Facies/Rock Types Modeling:
- Lithofacies interpretation, grid scale resolution and vertical facies associations/regrouping.
- Core – log calibration to generate genetic facies group on wells; facies interpretation on un-cored wells.
- Object-based and SIS techniques in genetic facies modeling.
- Data analysis and volume fraction; honoring volume fraction analysis in facies modeling.
- Modeling genetic facies, conceptual and seismically guided techniques.
Workshop: Facies/Rock Types Modeling (RFN, RQI/FZI):
- Petrophysical-based rock typing (porosity based, porosity-Sw based and porosity-permeability based).
- RFN calculation and rock typing classification based on core and log data (if applicable).
- RQI/FZI calculation and rock typing classification based on core and log data (if applicable).
- Modeling rock-types with SIS technique bias to facies model, with and without seismic attributes, application of cross variogram from seismic attribute and log data.
- Combine rock types model with diagenetic overprint in carbonate (if any).
- Selecting appropriate rock-type models.
Workshop: Property Modeling of Vshale, PHI and NTG:
- Log data import and QC.
- Vshale modeling; log upscaling with/without rock type bias, data analysis and transformation, variogram setting and modeling and SGS modeling technique with seismic attributes, application of cross variogram from seismic attribute and log data
- Porosity modeling; log upscaling bias to rock type, data analysis and transformation, variogram setting and modeling in each rock type; and SGS modeling technique with and without seismic attributes, application of cross variogram from seismic attribute and log data.
- Dilemma of NTG concept, determination and cut-off; do we need to model NTG?
Workshop: Property Modeling of Perm and Sw:
- Log data import and QC.
- Porosity - permeability cross plotting (direct cross plotting from porosity or from porosity-Vshale) and permeability model transformation.
- Calculating permeability multiplier based on well test KH and calibrating permeability model.
- Sw calculation based on Pc (Leverett-J Function), determination of FWL and contact based on MDT/RFT.
- Sw calculation in 3D grid model.
Volumetric and Uncertainty:
- Volumetric calculation.
- SKK Migas method on volume calculation (P1, P2 and P3 based on well tests) and risked volume category.
- Uncertainty setting; SEED number, fluid contact, petrophysical range, etc.
- Monte Carlo uncertainty and sensitivity analysis running.
- Presenting uncertainty and sensitivity of the model.
Discussion and Q/A:
- Model validation; visual and statistical (histogram and variogram of data vs. model)